PERSUASIVE SPEECH #
When preparing a persuasive, argumentative speech, you need to consider both matter (what you are going to say) and manner (how you are going to say it).
For political speeches here
For war inspirational speeches here.
When preparing the matter for a persuasive speech, the golden rule is ‘quality not quantity’. A brief and simple message has the dramatic and persuasive appeal that a long- winded, rambling discourse does not. You want simply to deliver a clear and expressive message.
2. Rhetorical Techniques:
There are several stylistic devices we can use for dramatic and persuasive effect.
Words that appeal to the listeners’ emotions rather than to their powers of reason and logic. These are some-times called ‘loaded’ words as they contain a message that is subtly telling the listener what to think or believe.
A rhetorical question is one put by a speaker for effect, not to draw an answer. An example is: ‘Who would believe such nonsense?’, the implication being that no-one, would. The speaker is engaging the listener.
Rhythmically balanced phrases and sentences appeal to the ear. They can have a hypnotic effect, persuading listeners to accept what is being said.
“*I came to bury Caesar, not to praise him.” * Mark Antony
Ask not what your country can do for you,
*But ask what you can do for your country. * John F. Kennedy
Faith is harder to shake than knowledge.
Love is less subject to change than respect.
*Hatred is more lasting than dislike. *Hitler
Like the above, this has a cumulative, convincing effect.
*“We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender” * Winston Churchill
‘Crescendo’ effect: ** Climax**
Using a sentence that rhythmically and cumulatively builds up to a climax is dramatic and, therefore, convincing. This device is often used in the final sentence of an address to leave a lasting impression.
Bathos - Anti-climax:
Also called the ‘let down’ effect, the speaker leads the audience to expect a resounding high climax, only to let them down to an unexpected low note:
My father warned me against dealing in guns, drugs or health products
He entered the room, saluted, pulled out his gun and burped.
Walls and furniture was gutted, even the wallpaper was scorched.
Attached you will find my stellar CV, replete with achievements, commendations, awards, honours and little athletics ribbons.
The ‘three effect:
For some reason, three balanced phrases or three strong, emotive or alliterative words have a particularly dramatic impact, for example.
*I came, I saw, I conquered. *Julius Caesar
*Of the people, by the people, for the people. *Abraham Lincoln
*Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few. *Winston Churchill
Changing well know phrases by inversion or subversion can be extremely engaging.
*We are no longer the lucky country; we must become the clever
*This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is perhaps, the end of the beginning. *Churchill
Ambiguity: **A definite no-no in informative writing - where clarity and precision are mandatory - in creative writing ambiguity adds a richness and dimension of infinite possibility to meaning. Ambiguity can be constructed by the contradictory meanings in oxymorons, paradoxes, complex sentences, contrary phrases. Creative construction of Grammar and words with multiple meanings help to create multi-faceted messages.
Alliteration and assonance:
An excellent device is the repetition of consonants or vowels at the beginning of two or more words, eg. ‘radical ratbags’, and ‘unloved, unlovable and unlovely’. This is alliteration. Where the internal vowel in two or more words has a similar sound, we have assonance, as in ‘this bumbling, stumbling lumbering idiot’.
Other poetic devices such as imagery, metaphor, simile and personification can also be used, where suitable, to add life and colour to what is being said.
Try not to get carried away by the above devices - these ‘tricks’ of the oral trade. Make sure that you have a solid, underlying argument, which is logically developed and supported.
Criteria for assessing oral presentations
SKILLS (Aural - these key words pertain particularly to vocalisation).
Modulation of pace
Modulation of tone
Modulation of volume
NON-VERBAL These key words pertain particularly to the use of the body as an adjunct to speech.
Appropriate facial expression
Variety and range
LANGUAGE SKILLS These key words pertain particularly to language choice and usage.
Appropriateness of language to the audience, the character and the occasion
Effectiveness of introduction and conclusion
Forms of Speeches:
Declamation - a speech given in a dramatic or theatrical manner.
Proclamation - A formal declaration or publishing of a new law or policy. Also as: Edict, Ukase, Bull
Joint communicae – a formal announcement at the conclusion of multi-lateral talks.
Statement – A formal announcement designed to clarify an issue.
Oration - a pompous, ceremonial or rhetorical address on a momentous occasion.
Sermon, homily - A speech delivered with some moral advice
Exhortation - designed to encourage, inspire or stimulate to action
- in war.
Address - a formal speech to an audience.
Panegyric - an oration of celebration or praise
Eulogy - a funeral speech in tribute to the deceased.
Obsequies - expressions of consolation or bereavement for the dead.
Valedictory – a farewell address generally at a graduation ceremony.
Toast – a formal well wishing during a celebration.
Lecture – an informative address to instruct or expose a topic.
Harangue – an angry ranting speech critical of its subject or audience. Also a Tirade, rant, diatribe, invective.
Soliloquy - generally an actor talking to oneself that the audience is meant to overhear.
Monologue - One person talking to an audience.