Parts of Speech #
** I. Noun:** ** a word used as name of a person, place or thing. e.g. tree; horse ** Ex: The boy threw the ball
There are three kinds of nouns: Common, Proper and Abstract.
Common: Any person place or thing – boy ,city or hat
Proper: Specific name of person, place or thing – Sean, Sydney, Sombrero
Abstract: Not concrete or tangible – a concept – jealousy, beauty, truth
**II. Noun Equivalents **
A pronoun is a noun equivalent, i.e. it is used in place of a noun.
The other noun equivalents in English are:
The adjective used as a noun, - The good are always merry.
The gerund: Surfing has become a very popular pastime.
We like surfing during the summer months.
- The noun infinitive:
To keep silent is often too difficult.
I desire to dream away an hour or two.
- The noun phrase:
What to wear is my problem.
Do you know how to study effectively?
- The noun clause:
Why Snodgrass acted in that way puzzled his friends.
They all thought that Snodgrass behaved foolishly.
If, in the above examples, you of ask; Who? or What? before the verb, and Whom? or What? after it, you will find that noun equivalents, like pure nouns, can be used either as subjects or as objects.
**III. Verb: **part of speech used to indicate action or state of being. As a predicate it makes a statement about the subject of the sentence.
The girl threw the ball
She is the best girl for the position.
**IV. Adjective: ** a describing word to a noun; a word which qualifies a noun.
e.g. a tall boy; a white house
There are at least six different types of adjectives:
Descriptive: A big house
Demonstrative: That house.
Possessive: Their house.
Numerical: Eight houses.
Distributive: Each house.
Interrogative; Which house?
Adjectives can have three degrees of comparison:
Positive - a good house.
Comparative - a better house.
Superlative - the best house.
Extreme adjectives do not need qualification or magnification:
Unique, ultimate, quintessential, utter, absolute, final, thorough, complete exclusive, inimitable, sole…
a word used to express the attribute of an attribute; a word which qualifies an adjective, verb or other adverb. Adverbs tell us when, where, how or why things happen.
e.g. a very tall boy; he spoke quietly.
A word to introduce a phrase or to indicate relative position.
Down, in, under, over, through, around, above, below, on,** **
“I lately lost a preposition: it hid I thought beneath my chair, so angrily I cried, ‘perdition’* up from out of in under there.” *(everlasting punishment in hell)* *
For years it was believed you did not finish a sentence with a preposition." Winston Churchill mocked this pedantic “rule”, which was obsolete half a century ago, saying that for some pedants, seeing prepositions at the end of a sentence ***“is something up with which they will not put”. ***
“Most of the enlightened authorities now allow this construction.” *** ******“is something which they will not put up with”. ***** **
**VII. Article: ** a word to introduce a noun: “A”, “An”, “The”
A house - “A” is used before a noun beginning with a consonant.
. An apple/an hour - “An” is used before a noun beginning with a vowel/sound.
**VIII. Conjunction: **joining words, the glue that unites words or clauses.
Co-ordinate conjunctions join equal statements; and/or/but
Subordinate conjunctions combine unequal statements or clauses. (when, while, because, until………)
Jack played on the swing and Jill went down the slippery slide.
I arrived at the station when the train arrived.** **
**XI. Interjections: **Any word thrown into a sentence to show surprise, awe or fear.
Wow! That’s a big fish you caught!
Oh no! not another wave!
Parts of a Sentence:
Subject: The noun or its equivalent central to the idea of the sentence. What the sentence is about.
Predicate: The action or the state of being of the subject.
**The Object: **The recipient of the action or the state of being of the subject.
**Clause: ** a single passage of a discourse or writing containing a subject and predicate. Any compound sentence has two independent clauses, while a complex sentence has a main clause and a subordinate (dependent) clause.
e.g. The boy, who spoke quietly, was chosen as the best speaker. (Complex)
The boy spoke quietly and I spoke loudly. (Compound)
Phrase a small group of words which has some degree of unity within the structure of a sentence. e.g.
The leading lady took the centre of the stage.
Smiling sweetly, she acknowledged the applause.