Macbeth Dramatic Technique Macbeth

Dramatic Technique in Macbeth #

Shakespeare uses a number of clever dramatic devices to keep us engaged in the action of Macbeth. Here are a number of them:

The historical Macbeth ruled for about 16 years yet we get the impression everything happens in about a week. It is this compression of time that creates energy keeping us on edge. The action of the play takes place over nine days. The historical events chronicled in the play actually took place over the period of about eighteen years.

Some of the action is given to us second hand, such as Macbeth’s heroic battle against the forces of Norway. Many others are dramatised in front of us.

The actual assassination of Duncan occurs off stage but we are privy to the inner thoughts and actions of both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth during this tense scene.

As comic relief to ease our tension, the murder scene is followed by the lighter Porter’s scene with its bawdy humour.

While Macbeth begins to ramble on in his justification of killing the guards, there is a danger of him giving himself away so Lady Macbeth faints drawing attention away from Macbeth.

We are drawn closer to Macbeth through five soliloquies. Each help us to compare his private self to his public image. It is this juxtaposition that enables us to at first identify with him and later become repelled by what he becomes.

Soliloquies and asides: #

I. iii – Macbeth’s first series of asides:

This supernatural soliciting…

I. vii – Macbeth’s first soliloquy:

If it were done when ‘tis done, then ‘twere well…

II. i – Macbeth’s second soliloquy:

Is this a dagger which I see before me…

III. i – Macbeth’s third soliloquy:

To be thus is nothing… But to be safely thus.–Our fears in Banquo
Stick deep; and in his royalty of nature
Reigns that which would be fear’d: ’tis much he dares;
And, to that dauntless temper of his mind,
He hath a wisdom that doth guide his valour
To act in safety. There is none but he
Whose being I do fear: and, under him,
My Genius is rebuked; as, it is said,
Mark Antony’s was by Caesar. He chid the sisters
When first they put the name of king upon me,
And bade them speak to him: then prophet-like
They hail’d him father to a line of kings:
Upon my head they placed a fruitless crown,
And put a barren sceptre in my gripe,
Thence to be wrench’d with an unlineal hand,
No son of mine succeeding. If ’t be so,
For Banquo’s issue have I filed my mind;
For them the gracious Duncan have I murder’d;
Put rancours in the vessel of my peace
Only for them; and mine eternal jewel
Given to the common enemy of man,
To make them kings, the seed of Banquo kings!
Rather than so, come fate into the list.
And champion me to the utterance! Who’s there!

Context

Duncan is murdered. This soliloquy takes place at the banquet when Macbeth hopes to enlist the alliance of other thanes. Macbeth fears Banquo.

Language features

There is: an interesting use of adjectives which taken together comprises a form of cumulation through the imagery used e.g.

‘fruitless crown’, ‘barren sceptre’ and ‘unlineal hand’.

an allusion to ‘Mark Antony’ and ‘Caesar’

a move from pluralised pronouns to first person e.g.

‘Our fears in Banquo’ to ‘And champion me into the utterance!’

use of exclamation marks. use of apostrophe.

Form

  1. Macbeth comments on his kingship and present fears.
  2. Macbeth recalls Banquo’s interaction with the witches.
  3. He realises his present course of action.
  4. He challenges fate to come and fight on his side.

Values/Content

Macbeth’s course of action appears to be narrowing again as the snare of fate seems to be constricting further. He decides he needs to murder Banquo and Fleance in order to maintain the crown; his restless desire is fixed on his own security. His guilt is manifest, his conscience defiled and he realises it would be folly to stop now. He attempts to frustrate the prophecy and defy his tragic end.

V. v – Macbeth’s final soliloquy:

She should have died hereafter…

His final soliloquy demonstrates a broken man, cynical and dejected by a futile struggle for power, yet there is little evidence of personal loss, rather a general reflection on the human condition.

Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,
to the last syllable of records time;
and all our yesterdays have lighted fools,
the way to dust death.
Out, out brief candle!
Life’s but a walking shadow,
a poor player that struts and frets his hours upon stage
and then is heard no more.
It is a tale told by an idiot,
full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.”

He knows he has been defeated and “his life fallen into the sear, the yellow leaf” and that his legacy irretrievably discredited.

Contrast:- Justification #

Shakespeare’s consummate skill is to present both sides of issues:

First Malcolm lists the characteristics of a bad ruler:

MACDUFF

Not in the legions
Of horrid hell can come a devil more damn’d
In evils to top Macbeth
.

MALCOLM

I grant him bloody,
Luxurious, avaricious, false, deceitful,
Sudden, malicious, smacking of every sin
That has a name: but there’s no bottom, none,
In my voluptuousness:

Later Malcolm lists the quaiities of a good leader

MALCOLM

But I have none: the king-becoming graces,
As justice, verity, temperance, stableness,
Bounty, perseverance, mercy, lowliness,
Devotion, patience, courage, fortitude,
I have no relish of them, but abound
In the division of each several crime,