History

    Myths on the Anzac legend # Historians and serving soldiers question the tendentious, sententious purposes of Anzac Day celebrations. Not everybody accepts the dominant narrative of Anzac Day as the defining Australian experience of nationhood. The first Anzac Day was first commemorated on April 25th 1916, the anniversary of our first landing at Gallipoli. The word ANZAC, created in 1915 is an acronym from Australian and New Zealand Army Corps.

    Bob Dylan # Robert Allen Zimmerman, was born May 24, 1941, in Duluth, Minnesota, raised in nearby Hibbing and bar mitzvahed in 1954. The 1960s were Dylan’s decade – in the first five years as a New York sensation and voice of the civil rights protest movement, then as a drug-fuelled rock’n’roller and ultimately husband and father. Sean Wilentz of the New York Times writes: Dylan debuted his first obviously historical song, “With God on Our Side,” written when he was twenty-one years old, at Town Hall in April 1963.

    History of WAR # Compare and contrast Classical Warfare with modern day fighting. Account for why modern day war is no longer romantic or glamourised. How do the Armed Services attract young people to join? What literature did the war evoke? Throughout history, according to James Hillman in A Terrible Love of War, during the past 5600 years of written history, there have been 14,600 wars.

    All Quiet On The Western Front # Excerpts from Putnam & Co. 1964. Erich Maria Remarque - of French extraction, his family immigrated to Germany at the time of the French Revolution. At the age of 18, he joined the German Army directly from school. During the war his mother died of cancer and most of his friends were killed. Told from the German point of view, it describes the horror and pitilessness of how war is prosecuted throughout the world.

    Major Sea Battles # Ancient Times # The earliest sea-fight in history was between the Corinthians and Corcyraeans, when Corinth asserted its dominance. The cause was the reaction of the Corcyraeans, “that every colony that is well treated honours its parent state, but becomes estranged from it by injustice. Early Mediterranean history reveals many invasions by sea from King Minos controlling the Cycladian islands and even Athens by his naval superiority.

    Tolstoy # 1828 - 1910 The scion of prominent aristocrats, born at the family estate, 210 kilometres south of Moscow. Matthew Arnold claimed a novel by Tolstoy is not a work of art but a piece of life; Tolstoy’s realistic works seem to elude all artifice. Famously, Winston Churchill defined Russia as: “a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma," There appears a Western sense of Moscow as the “other”.

    Literature and War # This is a survey course rather than an intensive period or author centered one. We hope to explore writers who have experienced war and felt compelled to write about it. What are the recurring motifs and threads in their experiences. The Hakone Ryokan with “Onsen” spa serves a delectable 15-course “kaiseki” meal in exquisite dainty dishes with wide ranging tastes and delicate presentations. Modern exquisite dining tends towards “tasting menus”.

    Psychology of War # For most of the history of the world we have been at war. From earliest times, most young men were brought up within a warrior culture; going to war was their primary purpose for being born. Women were precluded from war as they were needed as incubators to provide replacement warriors for the next war. The Trojan saga in the early Greek sources tells of the genocide of the Trojans, and the Greek poets explored some of the darkest impulses of human conduct in war.

    Peace Treaties # “To kill one man is to be guilty of a capital crime, to kill ten men is to increase the guilt ten-fold, to kill a hundred men is to increase it a hundred-fold. This the rulers of the earth all recognize and yet when it comes to the greatest crime – waging war on another state – they praise it! It is clear they do not know it is wrong, for they record such deeds to be handed down to posterity; if they knew they were wrong, why should they wish to record them and have them handed down to posterity?

    Road to Democracy # There has never been a golden age of politics, enlightened by bright and shining ideals. The statesmen of yesterday were the brawlers and thugs and grubs of their age. Our forefathers were bastards, our foremothers… well, the word clangs in the ear, because the ladies hardly got a look in. Politics then, as politics is now, was nasty, brutish and sure to disappoint. In The Shortest History of Democracy, John Keane explored its beginnings in Syria-Mesopotamia - and not Athens - to its role in fomenting revolutionary fervour in France and America.

    Slaughter-House Five # by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (1969) Salon’s Michael Schmidt writes about the way Vonnegut changed the war novel by using aspects of science-fiction: Doris Lessing calls Vonnegut: “moral in an old-fashioned way . . . he has made nonsense of the little categories, the unnatural divisions into ‘real’ literature and the rest, because he is comic and sad at once, because his painful seriousness is never solemn.

    Atrocities # Some terms are more difficult to define than others. An atrocity is in the eye of the beholder. Atrocities involve ineffable horror – unspeakable pain, in response to unconscionable acts. One man’s atrocity is another’s desperate justice. The first murder is believed Cain & Abel In the Book of Genesis, Cain and Abel are the sons of Adam and Eve. Cain is a farmer, and his younger brother Abel is a shepherd.

    Australia’s slide into Tyranny # Primitive societies were obsessed with fertility. Any drought, famine or pestilence was seen as a punishment from superior beings. The safety and welfare of the tribe depended on the health and life of a semi-divine or demi-god ruler. A healthy vigorous and virile king ensures natural and human productivity. A sick, maimed or impotent king brings blight and disease to the land and the people.

    The Iliad # Iliad - Song of Ilium The poem begins with an invocation to one or all of the nine muses. “Voke has an emotive or spiritual dimension”: Invoke, vocative, evoke, evocative, provoke, provocative. Devote, votaries, votive – offerings – a paean to Calliope? BkI:1-21 Invocation and Introduction # Here are three different translations of Homer’s invocation: Goddess, sing me the anger, of Achilles, Peleus’ son, that fatal anger that brought countless sorrows on the Greeks, and sent many valiant souls of warriors down to Hades, leaving their bodies as spoil for dogs and carrion birds: for thus was the will of Zeus brought to fulfilment.