Text Types

    ** ** FEATURE ARTICLES Feature articles differ from ordinary news articles in that they are more in depth and much longer. They are generally on a topical current issue and adopt an explanatory approach. Written in a casual conversational and inclusive style, feature articles attempt to be more personal with plenty of human interest through interviews, quotes, names and anecdotes. They often try to show both sides of an issue.

    From the Guardian - Australia # From Muriel’s Wedding to Moulin Rouge: inside Jill Bilcock’s frantic world of film editing One of Australia’s most gifted film editors on Baz Luhrmann, Michael Hutchence and making Muriel likable ![ Australian film editor Jill Bilcock, subject of the documentary of Jill Bilcock: Dancing the Invisible. Photograph: Adelaide film festival] [Luke Buckmaster][2] 9 October 2017 Anybody with the most basic understanding of film editing will tell you there are many words to describe different kinds of techniques.

    Forms of Speeches: # Declamation - a speech given in a dramatic or theatrical manner. Proclamation - A formal declaration or publishing of a new law or policy. Also as: Edict, Ukase, Bull Joint communicae – a formal announcement at the conclusion of multi-lateral talks. Statement – A formal announcement designed to clarify an issue. Oration - a pompous, ceremonial or rhetorical address on a momentous occasion. Sermon, homily - A speech delivered with some moral advice

    The Language of Advertising # We are are living in a sea of promotions; bombarded with increasing amount of overt and covert (subliminal) advertising that could be considered aural and visual pollution. When advertising becomes so ubiquitous its invasive, intrusive presence can cause conditioned behaviour that may be psychologically damaging. People, who use language to arrest attention, communicate instantly, arouse desire and create need, anticipation and excitement are copy writers for advertising**.

    The Language of Humour # Humour (originally temperament) is an elusive, inexplicable phenomenon essential for sanity – often the best medicine for all psychological ills. We know that it provides relief from aggression, twisted logic or boredom while connecting or bonding us to others. It can make us more aware of ourselves. We can learn by laughing at our failures. It celebrates the ordinariness of our existence; the minutiae of life.

    The Language of Politics # Politics is the manner in which a group of people is organised to pursue their interests, whether it be governing a country, running an organisation or merely structuring their interests into a club. In a democratic organisation, the members usually adopt a set of rules called a CONSTITUTION. In non- democratic organisations, the rules are often arbitrary and capricious, depending on the mood of the strongest and imposed on the rest by force.

    The Language of Satire # Satire and the Media # One of the first satirists was Aesop’s famous Book of Fables, which date back to the 5th Century BC. Of course Homer already used irony in The Iliad and could be mocking the brutality and futility of armed combat. John Clarke, renown for “The Games’, believes that Satire is an antidote to being lied to. Satire is the great leveller, the democratic means of smirking at pretension and power.

    PERSUASIVE SPEECH # When preparing a persuasive, argumentative speech, you need to consider both matter (what you are going to say) and manner (how you are going to say it). For political speeches here For war inspirational speeches here. 1. Matter When preparing the matter for a persuasive speech, the golden rule is ‘quality not quantity’. A brief and simple message has the dramatic and persuasive appeal that a long- winded, rambling discourse does not.

    Language of Visuals # People who use graphics, images and film to illustrate and depict issues will use both an objective and a subjective approach. Text types that: Illustrate, depict , diagram or use moving images They say that “pictures never lie”, but we know this is a half-truth. Through various filmic techniques, pictures and especially moving images can manipulate the viewer’s emotions and distort the actual truth of the scenes they depict.

    The Language of War # Aeschylus maintained that “the first casualty of war is truth”. Churchill agreed: “In wartime truth is so precious she must be attended to at all times by a bodyguard of lies” and later, “a lie gets halfway around the world before truth gets its pants on”. Warmongers often justify atrocities with the term “the fog of war” When the drums beat and the trumpets sound, the voice of reason is silenced.

    PERSUASIVE LANGUAGE # Two of the priceless rights of our democracy are perhaps the two we hold dearest of all; to guarantee the freedom to speak and publish what we want. (with-in the limits of decency and the libel laws). However, this freedom of speech provides a scope for propaganda for those unscrupulous enough to exploit it for their own ends. The word Propaganda itself used to be a respectable term, originally meaning the spreading of good news.

    Political Speeches # Excerpts from Words that elevated debate now hot air, John Huxley SMH, September 17, 2011 In his controversial portrait of the former prime minister Paul Keating, Recollections of a Bleeding Heart, Don Watson describes the political speech in a multitude of ways. It should be, he suggests, a matter of record, a lover’s embrace, a defence against barbarism, a ‘‘civilised gesture towards order and respectability in a world which prizes spontaneity and tends towards chaos’’.

    Silence # Language communicates by nuance or the power of suggestion so that words are not always reliable. A pregnant pause can often be more effective than slick, glib, smarmy spiels or garrulous prattling. Silence can transcend language. Ellipsis and fragmented sentences can often convey more meaning than words. Emily Dickinson pares her language down to a minimum allowing our imaginations to engage. Relying on my command of the language, I remained silent.

    Speeches to rouse Soldiers # Before a major battle, leaders of the army attempt to rouse the spirits of their troops with a pep talk – a call to arms. Coaches of major sporting teams will do much the same. Homer and Shakespeare caution about becoming seduced by the gilded tongue or the Dithyrambic - the nature of an impassioned oration. World War II # Stephen Sewell demonstrates: Both Britain and Germany were led by men who were artists - they were both painters and both great orators.

    Synonyms for expressions or statements # English is rich in synonyms and the way we speak has an abundance of nuances and suggestions. The three columns below list some of the different ways we can convey the manner in which something is said. The fourth column lists the many ways in which the receiver interprets the message expressed. Alternatives for “shows” Discloses, exemplifies, reveals, indicates, demonstrates, symbolises, represents, reflects, mirrors, manifests, Illustrates, portray, depict

    Text Types # People use different language and structures depending on their purpose. Various text types can be identified and analysed. All communication has a purpose and composers will attempt to fulfil that purpose by using a variety of techniques that will achieve their aim. Broadly speaking we can identify and categorise these techniques in order to discriminate between rational objective responses and emotive, confidence tricks. As recipients of information we have to be vigilant and cluey so we do not become victims of propaganda.

    Art of persuasion not so simple # People, see what they want to see, hear what they want to hear and believe what they want to believe, often in defiance of fact and logic. Suasive arguments are not so much “Art” as craft; tricks to manipulate perception and ways of thinking. Persuasive arguments may not be so much artistic as crafty. We need to be on our guard not to be so easily duped or gulled by clever tricks.